Renewable Energy System – Assessing the potential of animal fat-based biological phase change materials (PCMs) in construction applications: a new thermal differential investigation.
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An integrated renewable energy system based on the IREOM model and spatial time series for isolated rural areas in Valparaíso Region, Chile
By Yunesky Masip 1, * , Anibal Gutierrez 2, Joel Morales 3, Antonio Campo 4 and Meyli Valín 1
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
Supplying energy to isolated areas from electricity using an intelligent renewable energy system (SIRES) is proposed in this study in Valparaíso, Chile. The study analyzes the process of identifying the appropriate size of SIRES considering technical and economic factors. The optimization model proposed in the literature was modified and a posteriori analysis of various variables was performed. The model includes locally available renewable energy sources such as biomass, biogas, wind energy, sunlight and thermal energy. In addition, it was used to determine the energy potential of each of the isolated areas, to identify areas where SIRES can be implemented as a sustainable solution. The project simulates the initial investment cost and energy consumption of selected areas. The study also includes the selection of different system components and the use of a general model to determine the best combination of subsystems in isolated areas to reduce electricity costs. Finally, an economic evaluation showed that the use of SIRES based mostly on solar energy supported by biomass, biogas and small-scale wind costs almost three times less than the increase in electricity.
Integrated renewable energy system; improvement model; Off-grid smart integrated renewable energy system; improvement model; Power out
The use of renewable energy sources such as biomass, biogas, wind and solar energy in a widespread way for the provision of electrical energy has received significant attention in recent years due to the negative impact on the environment and the increase in fuel costs in related to electricity. These resources have enough potential to become important sources of energy due to environmental, social and economic benefits, in addition to public support and government incentives. All this is based on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, especially Goal 7, as stated by the United Nations (UN) . Currently, there are nearly 1 billion people working without electricity, and 50% of them can be found in sub-Saharan countries alone. Fortunately, there has been progress over the last decade in the use of renewable electricity from hydro, solar and wind power. However, there are obstacles that prevent renewable resources from competing with conventional energy sources in the current energy market, because the energy consumption of renewable resources cannot be controlled depending on the demand and interaction of these. .
To overcome these problems, the concept of an integrated renewable energy system (IRES) is proposed which meets the energy requirements of isolated areas far from the power grid with locally available renewable energy sources [ 2]. In order to keep up with the development of “modern” technologies, IRES was slightly modified and changed to SIRES to indicate the title of integrated renewable energy systems, as mentioned in Reference .
The only technological method, whether it is PV solar, wind, biomass, micro-hydro or any system, is not suitable to meet the needs in the long term due to the high cost of the systems and storage systems. To meet this challenge, locally available resources are combined or used in accordance with conventional energy systems. The authors of  discussed a step-by-step approach to adopting technologies designed to utilize renewable energy sources at the rural level. In addition, an assessment was made of the socio-economic aspects of the implementation of (renewable) solar energy systems in rural areas of developing countries. The authors note that the step-by-step process discussed in this work is to create a power plant that provides energy for the basic needs of human existence and then expanding its work to include the needs of agriculture and small industries that appear to be. Natural. Choosing developing countries to adopt.
Another similar study  presented an overview of solar technologies of interest for use in developing countries and discussed rural energy needs and renewable technology options available to meet these requirements. In addition, the authors analyzed the concepts of integrated systems and their benefits, along with the economic and socio-economic effects of introducing renewable energy systems in rural areas. Possibilities for collaborative efforts between educational institutions in the United States and developing countries are outlined. Also, the authors of  describe the role of renewable energy sources in meeting the energy needs of developing countries. The study showed that the energy demand and the lack of commercial fuel in rural areas increase the opportunity to use renewable energy sources locally. Also, the document stressed that the final choice of SIRES will depend on the location, the village, the region, the available resources, the country, the application, the need and, above all, the people and their customs.
In this sense, Chilean authorities are working on the country’s energy diversification, including in rural areas, and have given great importance to renewable energy sources. To use this power, different actions are necessary, which overcome the knowledge, economic and regulatory barriers. The development of renewable energy in Chile is part of the energy agenda 2050, the path that promotes, among the 38 guidelines, the promotion of high penetration of energy in the country, using domestically available resources and exploiting the development potential Chilean energy production methods, and other recommendations .
Taking into account the Energy Agenda 2050 in recent years, the National Energy Commission (CNE), first, then the Ministry of Energy (MINENERGIA) worked together with the German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ) GAM to promote research lines – research aimed at improving the knowledge of non-conventional renewable energy potential (NCRE) in Chile. It is worth noting the campaign to find wind and solar resources, as well as the studies developed and the improvement of numerical modeling tools applied in the country, which can be used to evaluate the nature of renewable energy sources, with an increasing scale. temporal resolution [8, 9].
Some of these resources, such as wind and solar radiation, are highly conserved and characteristic of a given location . Others, such as biomass and hydropower, are more predictable, as they represent seasonal variations and characterize the study area . Some stressors are different from others, while others can be predicted with more confidence; Therefore, design models or procedures must consider all these factors and include computational algorithms.
Some researches have been done, oriented towards the planning of SIRESs design models. Examples of this are historical simulation , linear programming [11, 12], objective programming  and a probabilistic approach that considers power loss probability (PPSP) . Traditional simulations require extensive data collection on resources and burdens based on local needs, focusing on direct programs and targeted programs and using seasonal or annual average values for their analysis. An interesting study was conducted using a cognitive approach; This design improves on previous studies in terms of algorithm efficiency .
One of the techniques currently used in various applications is weather forecasting, that is
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