Types Of Renewable Energy

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Types Of Renewable Energy

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By Ram Avtar 1, *, Netrananda Sahu 2, 3, Ashwani Kumar Agarwal 4, Shamik Chakraborty 5, Ali Harazi 6, 7, Ali P. Yunus 8, Ji Dow 9 and Tony Agustino Kurniawan 10

Key Laboratory of Coastal Ecosystems and Wetlands (Xiamen University), Ministry of Education, College of Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China.

Renewable Energy Examples

Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019

Renewable energy sources have received much attention in recent decades. This is partly due to the fact that fossil fuels are dwindling and the need for energy is growing due to the growing world population. This paper attempts to give an idea of ​​what researchers in the field of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) are doing to explore renewable energy sources to achieve a more sustainable future. Some studies related to renewable energy sources, ie. Geothermal energy, wind energy, hydropower, biomass and solar energy are considered in this paper. The focus of this review paper is to explore how remote sensing and GIS-based techniques have been useful in researching optimal sites for renewable energy sources. Also included in this paper are several case studies from different parts of the world that use these techniques when investigating renewable energy sites of various types. Although each of the remote sensing and GIS techniques used for renewable energy research seems to be effectively marketed among others, it is important to remember that in reality, a combination of different techniques is most effective for them. Throughout the paper, many issues related to the use of remote sensing and GIS for renewable energy are examined from both current and future perspectives and potential solutions are proposed. The authors believe that the conclusions and recommendations from the case studies and literature reviewed in this study will be of great value to renewable energy scientists and policy makers.

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Geothermal energy; wind energy; biomass; energy solar energy; renewable energy sources; fossil fuel geothermal energy; wind energy; biomass; energy solar energy; renewable energy sources; Fossil fuel

Non-renewable energy resources based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and wood fuel are widely used for electricity generation, transportation, home heating, and in manufacturing industries, among others. However, non-renewable energy sources are decreasing due to the increasing demand for energy due to the growing population [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. With the growing recognition and scientific consensus of the threat of climate change in the global community, they have put the spotlight in recent years on the need to phase out fossil fuels and transition to renewable sources [4]. That is why it is necessary to find alternative sources of energy, because the need for energy will always exist. The share of renewable energy sources has increased significantly in electricity generation, heating systems and transportation in urban areas [5]. This paper focuses on five types of renewable energy sources, viz. geothermal, wind, biomass, hydro and solar energy (Figure 1).

What Are The Five Major Types Of Renewable Energy?

Geothermal energy is considered a viable option for the environment. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) special report on renewable energy sources, climate change is unlikely to have a major negative impact on the reliability of geothermal energy, but the widespread use of geothermal energy could play an important role in many . Reduce greenhouse gas emissions [6]. In addition, modern reservoir management technologies, together with the continuous natural recovery of heat from earth processes ensure the sustainable use of geothermal systems. Geothermal energy is physically produced from heat that primarily comes from the decay of radioactive isotopes that occur naturally in the earth. Internal thermal combustion is estimated to generate a total thermal energy at a depth of 10 km of 1.3 × 10 .

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Barrel of oil [7]. Considering that the total global energy consumption is equivalent to approximately 100,000,000 barrels of oil per day, geothermal energy can theoretically supply energy needs for six million years [8]. Geothermal resources can be broadly classified into three categories: hydrothermal or convective systems, conduction systems, and deep aquifers. Hydrothermal (convective) systems can be either steam or water [9]. Characteristic surface manifestations include hot springs, fumaroles, and chemically altered rocks. However, sometimes there are no such surface manifestations. Currently, conductive systems include hot rock and igneous resources, and deep aquifers contain fluids moving through porous media at depths greater than 3 km, but without a local igneous heat source. Electricity can be produced by steam or by using high hydrocarbon steam to drive turbine generators to produce electrons. Currently, geothermal energy accounts for approximately 0.4% of the world’s global energy production, with a growth rate of 5%. In contrast, solar energy currently provides less than 0.2% of global energy production, but has a high growth rate of approximately 25–30% [10]. Currently, the total installed capacity for geothermal resources worldwide is 10,898 MW, which corresponds to approximately 67,246 GWh of electricity [6].

Wind energy, another alternative to fossil fuels, is an abundant, renewable and clean source. Wind power converts wind energy into electricity. Small onshore wind farms provide electricity in isolated locations. Statistics show that wind energy sources are among the fastest growing energy sources in the world. From 2000-2006, wind energy sources have quadrupled, with many new projects in China, USA, Denmark among other countries [11, 12]. The potential of a wind energy project depends greatly on the location of the project. A proper pre-investment assessment helps predict project outcomes and reduces uncertainty [13]. The main success characteristics of a wind energy project lie in factors such as wind power density, height above mean sea level, terrain topography, road network connectivity, proximity to electricity. network, and the distance from the protected areas [14]. According to the location, the wind farms are divided into two categories and that. Onshore and offshore [15]. Wind farms located on land are commonly known as onshore farms. For onshore wind farm projects, land topography and surface roughness are taken into account. Proximity to the transmission and road network is also considered. For onshore wind farms, satellite images are mainly analyzed to check the feasibility of their location and altitude [16]. The satellite imagery establishes guidelines for further decision-making in the case of wind farm projects.

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Along with satellite imagery, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), Sound Detection and Ranging (SODAR), and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) are also widely used in wind farms. The use of remote sensing helps to optimize the installation process of mast-based sensors [17]. Wind farms located in lakes, rivers, seas are known as offshore wind farms. In offshore wind farms, resources need to be qualified before they are financed. In offshore wind energy, remote sensing can be used in three different ways: land, airborne and satellite. Ground-based techniques are effective in cases where large wind turbines are to be installed and meteorological masses do not allow observation through the plane of the rotor [18]. It is often used at heights of approximately 100 m to 200 m above ground level [19].

Different Types Of Renewable Energy

Perennial biomass crops and fast-growing non-food crops have the potential to offer sustainable bioenergy production [20]. Biomass refers to biological material from living organisms or plants. It is one of the most commonly used energy sources in less industrialized countries

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