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Ram Avatar 1, * , Netranand Sahu 2, 3, Ashwani Kumar Aggarwal 4, Shamik Chakraborty 5, Ali Kharraji 6, 7, Ali P. By Yunus 8, G Dow 9 and Tony Augustio Kurniawan 10
Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Xiamen University), Ministry of Education, College of Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
Renewable energy has received a lot of attention in the past decade. One of the reasons is the scarcity of fossil fuels and the increasing demand for energy due to the increase in world population. This article attempts to give an overview of what researchers in the field of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) are doing in renewable energy research to achieve a more sustainable future. Some surveys of renewable energy such as geothermal energy, wind energy, hydropower, biomass and solar energy are discussed in this article. The focus of this review paper is to explore how remote sensing and GIS techniques have been useful in finding the best sites for renewable energy. Several case studies from different parts of the world using such techniques to identify various renewable energy resource sites are included in this article. Although remote sensing and GIS techniques used in exploration of renewable energy resources consider themselves to be the most effective among others, it is important to remember that in reality, a combination of different techniques is more effective for the job. Throughout the paper, many issues related to the use of remote sensing and GIS for renewable energy are examined from current and future perspectives and possible solutions are proposed. The authors believe that the conclusions and recommendations drawn from the case studies and literature reviewed in this study will be useful to renewable energy scientists and policy makers.
Earth energy; wind power; biomass; water power; solar energy; renewable energy; fossil geothermal energy; wind power; biomass; water power; solar energy; renewable energy; Fossil fuel
Non-renewable energy based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas and wood is widely used in power generation, transport, heating and manufacturing industries. However, non-renewable energy is decreasing due to increasing energy demand due to population growth [1, 2, 3]. With increasing acceptance and scientific consensus on the threat of climate change in global society, the need to switch from fossil fuels and transition to renewables has been highlighted in recent years . Therefore, it is necessary to find alternative sources of energy, because there will always be a need for energy. The share of renewable energy in power generation, heating and transportation systems in cities has increased significantly . This article focuses on five types of renewable energy viz. Geothermal, wind, biomass, hydro and solar energy (Figure 1).
Geothermal energy is considered as an environmentally friendly option. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report on renewable energy sources, climate change is unlikely to have a significant impact on the reliability of geothermal energy, but widespread use of geothermal energy will play an important role in one direction. . Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions . In addition, modern technology for managing wine reservoirs with the continuous addition of heat from the earth process ensures that the geothermal system can be used for a long time. Geothermal energy is physically produced from the heat that comes from the decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes on Earth. This internal heat sink is estimated to produce 1.3 × 10 thermal energy at a depth of 10 km.
Oil barrels . Assuming that global energy consumption is equivalent to 100 million barrels of oil per day, geothermal energy can provide the energy needed for six million years . Geothermal resources can be divided into three categories: hydrothermal or convective systems, convective systems, and deep water. Hydrothermal (convective) systems can be affected by steam or water . These include hot springs, fumaroles and chemically altered rocks. Sometimes, however, nothing like that happens. At the same time, the conductive system contains hot rocks and magmatic sources, and deep aquifers contain fluids moving in porous media at depths greater than 3 km, but there is no magmatic hot source at the site. Turbine generators can be driven to generate electricity from electrical energy steam or by using secondary hydrocarbon steam. Currently, geothermal energy contributes about 0.4% of global electricity generation with a growth rate of 5%. In contrast, solar energy currently accounts for less than 0.2% of global electricity generation, but with a high growth rate of 25–30% . Currently, the total installed capacity of geothermal resources worldwide is 10,898 MW, which is equivalent to about 67,246 GW of electricity .
Wind energy, an alternative to fossil fuels, is an abundant, renewable and clean resource. Wind power converts wind energy into electricity. Small offshore wind farms provide electricity to remote locations. Statistics show that wind energy is one of the fastest growing energy sources in the world. Wind resources quadrupled from 2000-2006, with many new projects in China, the United States, Denmark among other countries [11, 12]. The feasibility of a wind energy project is highly dependent on the location of the project. A good pre-investment assessment helps predict project outcomes and reduce uncertainty . The main success factors of wind power projects depend on factors such as wind power intensity, sea level elevation, terrain topography, connectivity through networks, proximity to power networks and distance from protected areas . Based on their location, wind farms are divided into two categories. marine and marine . Onshore wind farms are known as onshore farms. For offshore wind farm projects, land topography and soil hardness are considered. Proximity to transit and road networks are also considered. For offshore wind farms, mainly satellite images are analyzed to verify location and elevation potential . Satellite images provide guidance for further decision-making in wind farm projects
In addition to satellite imagery, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), sonic detection and ranging (SODR), and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are widely used in wind farms. The use of remote sensing helps improve the sensor deployment process based on mating poles . Wind farms located in lakes, rivers, oceans are known as offshore wind farms. In an offshore wind farm, resources must be qualified before the farm can be delivered. In offshore wind energy, remote sensing can be used in three different ways: ground-based, airborne and satellite. Ground-based techniques are useful when large wind turbines are installed and the meteorological mast cannot see across the plane of the rotor . It is generally used at heights of 100 m to 200 m above the ground .
Annual biomass crops and fast-growing non-food crops can provide sustainable bioenergy production . Biomass refers to the biological material of living organisms or plants. It is one of the most widely used energy sources in non-industrial industries
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