About Solar Energy

About Solar Energy – This article is about radiant light and heat from the sun using different technologies. For more details on using solar energy to generate electricity, see Solar Energy. For the scientific journal, see Solar Energy (Journal).

Solar energy is sunlight and heat used to generate electricity using a variety of technologies, including solar, thermal (including solar heating), and solar arrays.

About Solar Energy

It is an important source of renewable energy, and its technology is broadly classified as passive solar or active solar based on how it captures and transmits solar energy, or converts it to solar energy. Active solar technologies include the use of photovoltaic systems, solar thermal integration, and solar energy for heating. Passive solar strategies include orienting the building toward the sun, choosing materials with beneficial thermal mass or light scattering properties, and designing spaces that allow natural air circulation.

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The available solar energy makes it a very attractive source of electricity. Solar energy became the cheapest source of electricity in 2020.

Saudi Arabia signed a power purchase agreement for a new solar power plant in Faisalya in April 2021. This project has the lowest solar PV output cost in the world at 1.04 cts/kWh.

In 2011, the International Energy Agency (AGC) stated that “the development of low-cost, renewable and clean solar energy technologies will have enormous long-term benefits. It increases the country’s energy security by reducing the reliance on local, renewable and more imported resources. – Sources of aid. , increases sustainability and reduces pollution. “, reduces the cost of mitigating global warming….the benefits are global .”

The average is single. The theoretical area of ​​the Little Black Dot could meet the world’s total energy demand of 18 TW with solar energy.

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About 30% is returned to space, and the remaining 122 PW is absorbed by clouds, oceans, and land. The spectrum of sunlight at Earth’s surface extends roughly between the visible and infrared, with a small ultraviolet component.

Solar radiation The surface and oceans cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface. Warm air containing water vapor from the oceans rises, causing atmospheric circulation or condensation. As the air reaches high altitudes and the temperature drops, water vapor accumulates in clouds and sinks to the surface, completing the water cycle. Water condensation increases latitudinal heat transfer and creates atmospheric bubbles such as winds, hurricanes, and anticyclones.

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Through photosynthesis, green plants convert solar energy into chemically stored energy that produces food, wood, and fossil fuels.

The total amount of solar energy absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, and land masses is about 122 PW·year = 3.85 million Exajoules (EJ).

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In 2002 (2019), this was more energy than the world used in one hour (one hour and 25 minutes) in one year.

The amount of surface solar energy available to humans is different from the amount of near-Earth solar energy because factors such as geography, seasonal variation, cloud cover, and human presence limit the amount of solar energy available. Available In 2021, the Carbon Tracking Initiative estimates that the amount of land needed to generate all our energy from solar energy alone will be 450,000 km2, or the size of Sweden or Morocco or California (0.3% of the total Earth). region).

Geography affects solar energy potential because areas near the equator receive more solar radiation. However, the use of photovoltaics that can be monitored instead of the sun can significantly increase the potential of solar energy in regions far from the equator.

Seasonal changes affect solar potential because at night there is less solar radiation at the surface for solar panels to absorb. This limits the amount of energy a solar panel can capture in a day. Cloud cover affects the efficiency of solar panels because clouds block sunlight and reduce the amount of light available for solar energy.

Solar Panel Orientation

Also, the availability of land has a big impact on solar energy because solar panels can only be installed on land that is not used and suitable for solar panels. Rooftops are the perfect location for solar panels, as many people find that they can get energy directly from their homes this way. Other areas suitable for solar panels are non-commercial land where solar plants can be installed.

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Solar technologies are characterized as either passive or active in their methods of capturing, converting, and transmitting sunlight, and solar energy is used to varying degrees around the world, often depending in distance from the equator. Although solar energy mainly refers to the use of solar radiation for practical DS, all renewable energy sources except geothermal energy and tidal energy are generated directly from the sun.

Active solar technology uses photovoltaics, contracted solar panels, solar collectors, pumps and fans to turn sunlight into useful products. Passive solar technology involves choosing materials with beneficial thermal properties, designing spaces that naturally circulate air, and orienting the building toward the sun. Active solar technologies increase the supply of energy and are considered supply-side technologies, while passive solar technologies reduce the need for other resources and are generally considered demand-side technologies.

In 2000, the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the World Energy Council published annual estimates of potential solar energy for human use, taking into account factors such as solar power and cloud cover. etc. A land that people can exploit. According to estimates, the solar potential on Earth is between 1,600 and 49,800 (4.4 × 10

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In 1878, at the World Exhibition in Paris, Augustin Mochat successfully demonstrated a solar-powered steam engine, but development did not continue due to cheap coal and other factors.

In 1897, American inventor Guinier and solar energy pioneer Frank Shuman built a small demonstration solar plant. . A steam engine is driven in turn. In 1908, Schumann founded the Solar Energy Company and built a large solar power plant. He, technical adviser A. Ackerman and British physicist Sir Charles Vernon Boyce;

An ideal system was created to reflect solar energy in the collection box using glass, increasing the heating capacity, and now water can be used instead of ether. In 1912, Schumann developed a full-scale steam generator powered by low-pressure water and patented the balloon’s solar power system.

Between 1912 and 1913, Schumann built the world’s first solar thermal power plant in Madi, Egypt. His plant used parabolic troughs to distribute more than 22,000 liters (4,800 US$) of water from the Nile to nearby cotton fields. vision and The original design was revived in the 1970s with a new wave of interest in solar thermal energy.

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We have proven the commercial advantages of tropical solar energy, especially because we have proven that humans can obtain unlimited energy from sunlight once our oil and coal reserves are exhausted. – Frank Schumann, New York Times, July 2, 1916 [26] The water is warm;

Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water. In mid-latitudes (40°C to 40°C), 60% to 70% of domestic hot water use is provided by solar water supply systems with water temperatures up to 60°C (140°C).

The most common types of solar water heaters are distributed tube collectors (44%) and coated flat plate collectors for domestic hot water (34%). and uncoated plastic collectors (21%) used primarily to heat swimming pools.

In 2015, the total capacity of the solar thermal water system was about 436 thermal gigawatts (GW).

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Israel and Cyprus lead in the use of solar hot water systems per capita, with more than 90% of households using them.

Swimming pool heating is the main use of solar hot water in the US, Canada and Australia, with a capacity of 18 GW.

In the United States, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for 30% (4.65 EJ/yr) of the energy used in commercial buildings and about 50% (10.1 EJ/yr) of energy used in residential buildings. .

Solar heating, cooling and ventilation technology can offset some of this energy. Solar heating can be divided into passive solar concepts and active solar concepts based on active components such as solar tracking.

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