What Is Solar Energy – We all know that photovoltaic (PV) panels convert sunlight into usable electricity, but few know the true science behind this process. This week’s blog is about the basic science of solar energy. It may sound complicated, but it all boils down to the photovoltaic effect; the ability of a substance to emit electrons when exposed to light.
Before we get down to the molecular level, let’s look at the basic flow of electricity generation in general:
Now that we have a basic understanding of solar energy production and flow, let’s take a closer look at the science behind a solar PV panel.
Photovoltaic panels are made up of many small photovoltaic cells – photovoltaics, which means they can convert sunlight into electricity. These cells are made of semiconductor materials, usually silicon, a material that can conduct electricity while maintaining the electrical balance necessary to create an electric field.
When sunlight hits the semiconductor in a photovoltaic cell (step 1 of our high-level review), the light energy in the form of photons is absorbed, releasing a series of electrons, which then circulate freely by the cell. A solar cell is specially made with positively and negatively charged semiconductors to generate an electric field (see left image for visualization). This electric field forces the flowing electrons to flow in a certain direction, towards the conductive metal plates that make the cell circulate. This flow is known as energy flow, and the intensity of the current determines how much electricity each cell can produce. When the stray electrons hit the metal plates, current is directed into the wires, allowing the electrons to flow like any other source of electricity generation (step 2 of our process).
As the solar panel generates electricity, the power flows through the array of wires to the inverter (see step 3 above). While solar panels generate direct current (DC), most electricity consumers require alternating current (AC) to power their buildings. The function of the inverter is to convert direct current into alternating current, making it available for daily use.
After the electricity has been converted to its operating state (AC power), it is transferred from the transformer to the electrical panel (also known as the waste box) [step 4] and distributed throughout the building as necessary Electricity is now available for lights, appliances and other electrical equipment that run on solar energy.
Any electricity not consumed by the switch box is sent to the utility grid via an energy meter (our last step described above). A utility meter measures the flow of electricity from the grid to your property and vice versa. When your solar power system produces more electricity than you consume on site, this meter actually works in reverse and you get a credit for the extra electricity generated in the net metering process. When you use more electricity than your solar panel produces, you get extra electricity from the grid with this meter, so it works normally. Unless you’re going completely off-grid with your own storage solution, you’ll need to draw some power from the grid, especially at night when your solar panel isn’t generating. However, most of this grid energy will be allocated from excess solar energy produced during the day and during off-peak periods.
Although the details of solar energy are very scientific, it doesn’t take a scientist to convey the benefits that a solar installation can bring to a business owner or homeowner. An experienced solar developer can walk you through these benefits and help you determine if a solar solution is right for your business.
Although solar energy was once considered a niche market, countries are proving that this renewable energy source is a legitimate response to the global search for alternatives to fossil fuels.
As the nation with the largest population and largest carbon footprint, China’s clear commitment to renewable energy is encouraging. According to the 2021 US-China Glasgow Joint Declaration, the US and China reaffirmed their commitment to cooperation and collaboration with other parties to strengthen the implementation of the Paris Agreement and welcomed the important efforts made around the world to solve the climate crisis.
According to the National Energy Administration of China, more than 48 GW of photovoltaic (PV) capacity was installed in the country in 2020, bringing the total installed capacity to 253.6 GW.
This PV capacity is enough for China to maintain its market leadership position, with the Chinese market accounting for 33% of all installations in the world. It is worth mentioning that in 2017 China’s market share was 51%. China’s decline in market dominance coincides with a record number of new countries installing significant PV capacity.
Most photovoltaic products or solar panels are installed in remote areas by solar farms that sell energy to utilities. Satellite images confirm the astonishing growth of these giant solar farms in China.
The dramatic rise in solar power in China is due to the desperate need for electricity and the severe climate crisis. Although some countries have reduced incentives to install solar panels, the Chinese government is encouraging financial institutions to encourage solar installation.
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 countries and is the second largest producer of solar energy. The number of European member states auctioning solar power has increased, driving down prices.
In 2021, the European Union grew for the third consecutive year by 19.8 GW, which was close to the 23.2 GW recorded in 2011. Germany, the Netherlands and Spain were the main markets, followed by Poland, France and Belgium.
Total installed PV capacity in the European Union exceeded 138 GW in 2020. Almost 55% is installed on the roof of residential and commercial buildings. The solar PV market in the EU was in decline for six years before the trend reversed in 2018.
The United States continued to strengthen its leadership position in solar energy by expanding its utility sector and residential installations. Much of this increase can be attributed to the significant government incentives given to the housing sector, which is a rapidly growing market segment.
In 2020, the housing market and the services sector increased by 15% and 37%, respectively, compared to the level of 2019. Total new installed capacity in 2020 was 19.7 GW, which gave the United States a total installed capacity of 95 GW. As the cost of solar energy becomes more expensive than non-renewable sources, US production is expected to increase in the coming years.
According to the International Energy Agency’s 2021 report, Vietnam is the leader in solar energy in 2020, with an estimated 11.1 GW.
In 2020, the government changed tariffs for utility-scale solar PV, floating and rooftop solar projects, and should allow the solar market to grow further, leading to massive growth in 2019 and 2020 , which goes beyond the government’s expectations. for 2020. .
The success of the Vietnamese government was also influenced by government policies that encouraged investment in solar energy by guaranteeing production prices above the market price. This policy allowed the nation to find five times more institutions than the government had originally estimated. Vietnam received 7.7% of the global PV market in 2020.
Being one of the most populous countries in the world, Japan has limited space to install solar panels. Despite this, Japan remains the leader in total solar power production, with 8.7 GW of new capacity installed in 2020.
After the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011, Japan embraced solar power as part of a plan to double its renewable energy production by 2030. Inevitably, Japan found creative places to install panels solar Japan’s golf boom in the 1980s led to a proliferation of golf courses, many of which were completely abandoned by 2015. Many of these forgotten courses are now completely covered with photovoltaic products.
The island nation has also built floating “solar islands” with thousands of waterproof solar panels. These next-generation solar panels have several advantages, including the ability to be effectively cooled with water.
The International Energy Agency was founded in 1974 and focuses on the future of energy security and sustainable development through a global partnership of experts from around the world, academia and industry engaged in the joint development of research and the application of specific energy technologies. The IEA’s Photovoltaic Systems Program was established in 1993 with the aim of “strengthening international cooperation”.
Is solar energy good, is solar energy affordable, solar energy is what, is solar energy expensive, what is solar panel energy, is solar energy cheaper, solar energy is a, is solar energy profitable, is solar energy, what is solar energy system, how is solar energy, is solar renewable energy
How To Recondition A Deep Cycle Battery – Car maintenance is no joke. Apart from cleaning and other aspects, there are some technical issues... Read More
How Much Epsom Salts For A Bath – Dr. Debra Rose Wilson, MSN, R.N., IBCLC, AHN-BC, CHT – Clinical review conducted by Lana Barhum... Read More
How To Fix A Dead Motorcycle Battery – The Motor Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Exchange is a question and answer website for DIY enthusiast... Read More