Renewable Energy Modelling – District cooling versus individual cooling in urban energy: Impact of district heating sharing in cities of different sizes
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Energy Efficiency with 3D City Modeling Tools – A Roadmap to Energy Efficiency and Processes with Educational Applications †
This paper is a follow-up to our paper published at SDEWES 2018 in Palermo, Italy, from September 30th to October 4th, 2018.
Received: December 24, 2018 / Revised: January 18, 2019 / Accepted: January 24, 2019 / Published: January 28, 2019
(This article refers to the SDEWES 2018 Conference Special Issue Selected Papers on Sustainable Development, Water and Ecosystems)
In the paper, a method was developed to reduce the size and calculation of central heating equipment and provide conditions with heating area for cities based on 3D building models in CityGML types and their simulated heating demand. In addition, the roof geometry of each individual building is used to model the potential of photovoltaic energy generation. Two types of energy systems are used to meet the heat demand, namely a central heating system (CHP) and a large contract system (combined electricity and electricity CHP) (both with central storage and distribution area). done. study area. Both electrical designs were used in the urban case study of 1610 buildings. For the HP scenario, it is shown that the heat demand of the urban curriculum can be covered by a monovalent low-temperature system with storage, but the PV HP will only contribute 15% to the electricity demand. For the CHP scenario, only 61% of the heat requirement can be covered by the CHP because it is designed for at least 4000 hours of operation. Both PV and CHP excess electricity is fed into the grid. The comparison of the main energy of the two systems therefore depends on the selected primary energy factor (PEF): In the German regulations, the KWK system performs better than the HP system, since the PEF of the injection jet is 2.8. In the future, with increasingly lower PEFs for electricity, the situation will return and HPs will become more efficient, especially if the CHP continues to use natural gas. Although the renewable fuel is used in the Power-to-Gas (P2G) process for CHP, the initial energy balance of the HP system is better because the P2G process has a higher pressure drop. See the full article
City simulation; photovoltaics; the heating system; Integration; temperature measurement required; An urban area simulation at low temperatures; photovoltaics; the heating system; Integration; temperature measurement required; The heat in the area is low
This is an Open Access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided that the original work is credited.
Weller, V.; Stav, J.; Eicker, U. Renewable Energy Generation Scenarios with 3D City Modeling Tools – Methodology for Heat Pump and Combined Heat and Power Systems with Case Study Application
Weller V, Stave J, Ecker U. Assessing Energy Efficiency with 3D City Modeling Tools – Energy Efficiency and Energy Electronics with Educational Applications
Weller, Verena, Jonas Stave and Ursula Ecker. 2019. “Renewable Energy Generation Scenarios Using 3D City Modeling Tools – Methodology for Heat Pump and Combined Heat and Power Systems with Case Study Application
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Enlarge | east | Like the line | How Sticks As Animated | As Surface | rear view | Next Scenario Corporate Power Purchase Agreements (Corporate PPAs) and Merchant Renewable Projects are the most difficult business models in the renewable energy space.
In the first two issues of this series, we reviewed solar and wind options for oil and gas giants and discussed renewable energy investments. In our last episode, we got a unique look at the renewable energy business models that oil and essential oils should be well focused on – with an emphasis on models that offer the biggest economy.
As the chart from our recent publication on Oil and Fossil Fuels in Renewable Energy shows, there are three business models for renewable energy.
Majors can excel in high-risk, high-stress jobs related to technology and geography. The same applies to business models. Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) and renewable energy deals are the most complex business models in the renewable energy space, with high risks and – potentially – high rewards.
Unlike many smaller competitors, the majors have strong reputations and existing customers in large companies, as well as the resources to run complex businesses. As a result, majors have a competitive advantage in corporate PPAs.
Commercial purchases of renewable energy in the United States alone are on track to surpass 5 gigawatts by the end of 2018, with significant activity from tech companies like AT&T, Apple and Facebook, and the entry of new buyers. mature for renewable energy companies.
However, more needs to be done to open up this market to new companies and new locations. Renewable energy projects backed by corporate PPAs are more difficult to finance and deploy than renewable energy PPAs, giving oil and gas an edge over smaller competitors. Business relationships with large electricity suppliers can also offer sales opportunities.
New Energy Market: The Best Place to Invest in Oil & Gas Indeed, in all types of renewable energy business models, traders’ risk-reward profiles continue to often trade similar to oil and gas projects.
Traders grow. As more and more subsidy-free renewable energy projects emerge, there is no floor price for electricity and producers face wholesale costs.
For the recycling industry, scale and expertise mean better oil and gas processing. Majors can bear higher investment risks more easily than smaller players. Majors also have the opportunity to do business, which allows them to protect their careers. Finally, large companies have a strong track record and may not need to fund the project. This turns out to be better as project finance is more expensive for high-risk companies.
Vertically integrated energy is new territory for the majors, but shows promise. All oil and gas leaders are looking to diversify into renewable energy to avoid future business problems.
In fact, the energy transition is already underway, and it will happen faster than the main forecasts. Investments made today will help determine which companies will have the greatest impact on the future energy landscape.
Products Offshore Wind Services From new technologies and strategies to strategic acquisitions and marketing More stories Discover the success of offshore wind energy
Global Solar Equipment Services Learn more Understand the trends shaping the solar industry and guide your business to the greatest opportunities.
Energy Storage Learn more Explore the energy storage technologies and business models that are revolutionizing today’s energy landscape.
Product Global Wind Energy Market Learn More Base your decisions on timely, detailed and creative data and analysis on the global wind energy market.
Product Marketing Services and Tools Learn More To understand how top companies are responding to the uncertainty of today’s business environment. A group of international scientists has developed a mathematical model for the development of renewable energy systems based on island water pumps. According to their analysis, applied to the island of Ometepe in Nicaragua, this electricity cost can range from €0.047/kWh to €0.095/kWh.
An international research team has developed a mathematical model that aims to quantify the size of the energy grid connected to island communities.
The concept model is specially designed for the grounded energy system
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