Renewable Energy Resources Definition – Open Access Policy Institute Open Access Program Special Issues Editorial Process Guidelines Research Ethics and Publication Article Processing Fee Certificate Award
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By Ram Avtar 1, *, Netrananda Sahu 2, 3, Ashwani Kumar Aggarwal 4, Shamik Chakraborty 5, Ali Kharrazi 6, 7, Ali P. Yunus 8, Jie Dou 9 and Tonni Agustiono Kurniawan 10
Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Xiamen University), Ministry of Education, College of Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 9 August 2019 / Accepted: 15 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
Renewable energy has received special attention in the last decade. This is partly due to the depletion of fossil fuels and the growing energy needs of the growing world population. This article attempts to provide an overview of what geographic information systems and remote sensing (GIS) researchers are doing to study renewable energy sources to achieve a more sustainable future. There are several studies related to renewable energy sources namely. This paper discusses geothermal energy, wind energy, hydropower, biomass and solar energy. The focus of this overview paper is to explore how remote sensing and GIS-based techniques are useful in identifying the best locations for renewable energy sources. Several case studies from different countries using these methods when investigating sites with different types of renewable energy sources are also included in this paper. While each remote sensing and GIS technique used to effectively monitor renewable energy seems to sell itself as the most effective, it is important to remember that a combination of several methods is more effective in reality. tasks Throughout the document, many problems related to the use of remote sensing and GIS for renewable energy are examined from a current and future perspective and solutions can be proposed. The authors believe that the findings and recommendations from the case studies and literature reviewed in this study will be useful for renewable energy scientists and policy makers.
Geothermal energy; wind energy; biomass; hydropower; solar energy; renewable energy sources; fossil fuel geothermal energy; wind energy; biomass; hydropower; solar energy; renewable energy sources; fossil fuels
Non-renewable energy sources based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas and fuel are used, among others, for electricity, transport, home heating and in the processing industry. However, non-renewable energy sources are decreasing as the energy demand is increasing due to the growing population [1, 2, 3]. With increasing recognition and scientific consensus on the threat of climate change in the global community, the need to switch from fossil fuels and transition to renewable energy has become a focus in recent years . So other sources of energy must be found, because energy will always be needed. The share of renewable energy sources is increasing in power generation, heating and transportation systems in cities . This document focuses on five types of renewable energy sources. geothermal, wind, biomass, hydropower and solar energy (Figure 1).
Geothermal energy is considered an ecologically viable option. According to the special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on renewable energy sources, climate change will not have a negative impact on the reliability of geothermal energy, but the widespread use of geothermal energy is of great concern to many. reduce greenhouse gas emissions . In addition, modern reservoir management technology combined with the natural replenishment of heat from the ground ensures the sustainable use of this geothermal system. Geothermal energy is physically generated from heat that comes primarily from the decay of radioactive isotopes that occur naturally on Earth. This internal heat combustion is expected to produce a total thermal energy up to a depth of 10 km of 1.3 × 10.
Oil drum . Since the total global energy consumption is equal to approximately 100 million barrels of oil per day, geothermal energy can theoretically provide energy for six million years . Geothermal resources can be classified into three categories: hydrothermal or convective systems, conduction systems, and deep aquifers. Hydrothermal (convective) systems can be dominated by steam or water . Notable surface manifestations include hot springs, fumaroles, and chemically altered rocks. However, sometimes there are no mild manifestations. At the same time, the piping system includes hot bedrock and magmatic sources, and deep aquifers include fluids moving in porous media at a depth of more than 3 km, but without local magmatic heat sources. Electricity can be generated with steam or using secondary hydrocarbon steam to drive a turbine generator to produce electricity. Currently, geothermal energy accounts for about 0.4% of the world’s global electricity production, with a growth rate of 5%. In contrast, solar energy currently provides less than 0.2% of global electricity generation, but has a high growth rate of around 25-30% . Currently, the total installed capacity for geothermal resources worldwide is 10,898 MW, which corresponds to about 67,246 GWh of electricity .
Wind energy, an alternative to fossil fuels, is an abundant, renewable and clean resource. Wind energy converts wind energy into electrical energy. Small onshore wind farms bring electricity to remote areas. Statistics show that wind energy is one of the fastest growing energy sources in the world. From 2000-2006, wind energy resources increased fourfold, with many new projects in China, the United States, Denmark, etc. [11, 12]. The potential of wind energy projects is highly dependent on the location of the project. A good pre-investment evaluation helps predict project outcomes and reduce uncertainty . The key features of the success of wind energy projects lie in factors such as wind energy density, height above sea level, land topography, connection through the road network, distance to the electricity network, and the distance to the designated areas . Depending on the location, wind farms are classified into two categories, onshore and onshore . Onshore wind farms are commonly known as onshore wind farms. Onshore wind farm projects consider land topography and surface roughness. Distribution distances and road networks are also considered. For onshore wind farms, satellite images are mainly analyzed to test the feasibility of location and height differences . Satellite images provide guidelines for further decisions in the wind farm project.
In addition to satellite images, Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR), SONic Detection And Ranging (SODAR) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) are also widely used in wind farms. The use of remote sensing helps to optimize the mast-based sensor installation process . Wind farms in lakes, rivers, seas are called offshore wind farms. In offshore wind farms, the facility must be qualified before the farm is financed. In offshore wind energy, remote sensing can be used in three ways: on the ground, in the air and via satellite. Ground-based methods are effective when large wind turbines need to be installed and optical pylons do not allow viewing in the rotor plane . They are usually used at elevations from about 100 m to 200 m above ground level .
Multi-year biofuel crops and fast-growing non-food crops have the potential to provide sustainable bioenergy production . Biomass refers to biological material from living organisms or plants. It is one of the most common sources of energy in low-income industries
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