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First: An effective strategy for interpersonal violence prevention and self-management in low- and middle-income countries – Susan Zaro, Mark L. Rosenberg, James A. Thanks
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Appendix C 171 Extreme Violence: Impact on Health and Prevention Victor W. Sidel, Barry S. MD1. Levy, MD, MPH2 Introduction Mass violence, especially in the context of armed conflict, is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide than most major diseases. Mass violence destroys families, communities, and sometimes entire cultures. It diverts limited resources from health promotion and prevention, health care and other health and social services. It destroys the systems that support the health of the community. It affects human rights and contributes to social injustice. It makes people and nations believe that violence is the only solution to conflicts. And it contributes to the destruction of the physical environment and the excessive use of non-renewable resources. Collectively, integration threatens the fabric of our nation. In 1996, the World Health Assembly, the governing body of the World Health Organization (WHO), passed resolution WHA49.25, which stated that it is “a serious and growing public health problem in the world” ( World Health Assembly). , 1996). The Assembly requested the WHO 1 Distinguished University Professor of Community Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York. Assistant Professor of Public Health, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, NY. 2 Assistant Professor of Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.
172 APPENDIX C Director General to develop public health measures to address the problem. The result of the Global Report on Violence and Health, published by the WHO in 2002, was the first WHO report on violence as a public health problem (Krug et al. , 2002). The WHO report provides a typology of “violence” that describes three broad categories based on the characteristics of those who commit violence: self-inflicted violence, interpersonal violence, and bad company. This article deals with the elements of the third section, cooperation, with an emphasis on collective violence and “warfare”. These three types of violence overlap in several ways. Those who engage in mass violence may engage in egocentric behavior as a symptom of post-traumatic stress syndrome or as a result of self-loathing for actions taken during the war. Group violence can also be linked to interpersonal violence. For example, individuals and groups involved in armed conflict may commit violence among people, sometimes as a result of ethnic conflict or within the military due to conflict with superior officers or other members of the army in the midst of conflict. Soldiers may return from war with the mindset of a battlefield where they engage in interpersonal violence to maintain interpersonal conflicts that can be handled in non-violent ways. And children raised in the midst of war may believe that violence is the right way to resolve interpersonal conflicts. Collective violence is defined as “the use of violence by individuals identified as members of a group,” whether that group is conscious or permanent – against a group or groups. Other people, in order to achieve political, economic. , emotional or social (Zoi et al., 2002). The World Health Organization shows that, as examples of cooperation, “violent conflicts between nations and groups, the state and the terrorist group, conflict as a weapon , the displacement of people who left their homes, and the so-called “group” war. As the report shows, “all these things happen every day in many places most of the world” and “the impact of various health-related events including death, disease, disability, and the article is about the great debate. and other military operations and a brief discussion of “terrorism” and the “war on terror” (Levy and Seidel, 2008a) Definition of “military conflict” Conflict is usually most of the companies, but it is not possible to increase the use of the body type. When weapons are used in “mass,” they are usually referred to as “weapons.” This article focuses on mass violence where weapons are used, for which the term “war” is used.
Annex C 173 from knives, bayonets and knives to nuclear weapons. In this article, we refer to “small arms and light weapons” because these weapons are often used in armed conflicts in low- and middle-income countries, but we also discuss ammunition ( both from the air and on the ground. i.e. “improvised explosive devices”, land mines and artillery, used. destruction) are also discussed, although these a weapon that causes destruction, pain and the cause of immortality and mass death. per capita (World Bank, 2007) Based on GNI per capita, each economy is classified as low and middle, lower middle and middle) or high income. more than 30,000 (208 in total). Middle income is sometimes called “developing countries”, the term we will use in this article. This term is easy to use; It does not mean that all countries of the group have experienced the same development or that other industries have reached the desired level or the final stage of development. The classification does not accurately reflect the developmental status. The World Bank currently ranks economies based on 2006 GNI per capita, calculated using the World Bank Atlas method. The groups are as follows: low, $905 and less; lower middle income, $906 to $3,595, middle income, $3,596 to $11,115; and gross income, $11,116 or more. Low-income, lower-middle-income and upper-middle-income countries can be found on the World Bank website. Examples of low-income countries include the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Haiti, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe. Examples of low-income economies include China, Cuba, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, the Philippines, Thailand, and Ukraine. Examples of emerging economies include: Argentina, Brazil, Hungary, Mexico, Poland, South Africa, and Turkey. The data of the World Bank shows that there is a significant relationship between the wealth of the country and its state of civil war. For example, a country with a gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of the United States. In contrast, countries with a per capita income of less than $5,000.
174 Appendix C All things being equal. In addition to poverty, other risk factors for armed conflict may include poor health and poor quality of life.
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