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Depending on the individual, the Financial Institution Group (FIG) may be the most technically challenging and interesting task force, or there may be a bottom cave with lava-dwelling crocodiles that eat babies all day.
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These considerations differ significantly as group income depends on your investment banking goals.
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If your life goal is to work at KKR or Blackstone, make leveraged buyouts of industrial or retail companies, no, FIG Investment Banking is not the place for you.
But if you are interested in different areas of IB, you want to trade consistently and you
FIG Investment Banking: All Financial Institutions Group Definition of Financial Institutions Group: In FIG investment banking, professionals acquire commercial banks, insurance companies, specialized finance companies, brokerage/stock exchange companies, asset management companies and fintech companies. I advise. Implementation of debt and equity capital and mergers and acquisitions.
Historically, the financial sector has generated the highest fees for large investment banks, so they devote the most resources to it.
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Because bond issuance volumes are 10-20 times other industries’ issuance volumes (that’s why we explain below), create a profitable payment pool.
All of FIG’s workspace is about turning other people’s money into more money without any hard material things.
The first three of these verticals – commercial banking, insurance and specialized finance – stand out in terms of accounting, valuation and financial modelling:
For example, you can easily use the DCF model and standard multiples such as TEV/EBITDA to evaluate a broker-dealer, asset management firm or fintech firm.
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The same types of applicants who enter investment banking wherever they are will also join FIG investment banking: your university or business school, internships, grades, networking and recruitment/interview preparation are all important.
Although some areas of FIG use very different accounting and valuation methods, bankers cannot expect that you as an analyst will know all the relevant details.
It helps to know the basics covered in this article and bank modeling guide, but you don’t have to be an expert. You’ll still get standard technical questions.
Similarly FIG specific experience helps but it is more important at MBA and later recruitment level as bankers want industry experts there.
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For example, in real estate investment banking, you can gain experience in a number of real estate-related functions (such as CRE brokerage, asset management, real estate lending, etc.) and use it in an investment or consulting role.
But these imminent roles are less common in the financial institution sector, so if you want to be part of this group, you should start early and stay specialized.
There is a lot of M&A in commercial banking, but due to regulations that limit the bank’s ownership of all of the country’s reserves after acquisition, it focuses on smaller companies.
Larger banks may be more active in smaller acquisitions, especially non-deposit companies, as well as sales and exits.
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Equity problems also occur, but often when banks need to increase their “regulatory capital” (see below).
Commercial activity in insurance is more diverse, but you will still see more loan deals and fewer stock and company deals.
Business is still more volatile in other FIG industries, but you will see more equity and M&A deals in fintech as it is a “high growth” sector.
This is due to regulatory issues and the inability to “leverage” these companies, which are already heavily indebted and continue to issue loans.
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However, private equity has become increasingly active in the insurance sector over time, and LBOs in areas such as fintech are possible for more mature companies.
Higher interest rates mean banks make more money on their loans and pay more on their deposits and liabilities – but they
However, higher interest rates also mean lower asset values, which can undermine the value of banks, although it helps with their operations.
The point is that FIG is a complex field that is sensitive to many factors, but it is much more complicated than simply saying that factor X is “good” or “bad”.
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Major companies represented: Bank of Japan, ICBC (China), China Construction Bank, Agricultural Bank of China, Bank of China, JP Morgan, Mitsubishi UFJ (Japan), BNP Paribas, H. SBC, Bank of America Merrill Lynch, Credit Agriculture and Cities.
Loans and deposits and all that work from large, diversified companies, such as JPMorgan.
A pure sports commercial bank earns money from net interest income (interest income from assets minus interest expense on liabilities) and non-interest income (for example fees on customer deposits); One of the key factors is the “net interest margin”:
Banks are very sensitive to GDP growth, employment growth, business use and credit demand, and credit growth is closely related to GDP growth.
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Based on this, you might think that banks are like regular businesses, but with slightly different operational drivers.
Things are further complicated by regulatory capital, lack of enterprise value, and dividends paid out in exchange for free cash flow.
It is these expected losses (more
If a bank incurs an unexpected loss, its net debt will decrease because it will increase the “provision for credit losses” on the income statement, which will flow to the balance sheet as a reduction.
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But if a bank’s CSA gets too high, it won’t be able to cover the losses, and depositors and debt investors will start incurring losses – which is bad.
As a result, banks must maintain a certain amount of common equity — relative to their “risk-weighted assets” — in the event of default.
In a financial model, you cannot simply assume that a bank will increase its loans by 10% per year or that the average interest rate on its assets deposited on its assets will increase by 2% over time.
Apart from this legal capital, the concept of enterprise value versus equity value does not apply to commercial banks as you cannot separate operating assets and liabilities from non-operating assets.
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So you rely on equity-based ratios such as P/E, P/BV, and P/TBV, as well as equity-based metrics such as ROA and ROE.
As a result, “free cash flow” is not a useful metric for banks because changes in working capital and changes in working capital do not represent reinvestment in the same way as in a standard production-based business.
A bank’s cash flow statement — and parts of its income statement, such as employee compensation — may be considered “reinvested in the business.”
So the standard approach is to use the dividend as a proxy for free cash flow and use the dividend discount model instead of the traditional DCF.
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Major companies represented: Ping An Insurance (China), AXA (France), Allianz (Germany), China Life Insurance, Japan Post Insurance, China People’s Insurance Company, Asicurazioni Generali (Italy), Munich Re Insurance Company, Prudential, Legal & General Group (UK), MetLife and Berkshire Hathaway.
Many of the differences above for commercial banks apply to insurance companies as well: you don’t use enterprise value or TEV-based multis, regulatory capital is critical, and you use a dividend discount model instead of a traditional DCF.
The two main groups are property and casualties (P&C) and life and health (L&H), often abbreviated to “life”, and these vary significantly by term.
Insurance companies insure things like cars and homes, which means that if a dragon or demon army burns down their property, it can take years between the customer’s premiums being collected and the amount paid to the customer.
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In addition, they take the premiums they collect (“float”) and use them to make investments, which is what makes Berkshire Hathaway a financial giant.
In life insurance, the time lag between premium collection and loss payment can be decades instead of years.
Insurance companies are cyclical, but since many policies are required by law, they are more tied to the insurance cycle than to the economic cycle.
First, many firms enter the industry, lowering premiums, margins and policy standards, and then a catastrophic event such as a hurricane hits and wipes out some of these firms – due to less competition and higher interest rates.
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Other companies then see an opportunity to increase their market share by charging a lower price, and the cycle repeats itself.
Since the bulk of non-life insurance is car insurance, these companies are also heavily influenced by market trends: How are sales of new and used cars doing? Are the prices going up or down? Are consumers moving to bigger or smaller cars?
Life insurance is long-term, so it is more sensitive to interest rates than non-life insurance, and is also affected by factors such as savings trends, demographic changes, and property values.
The most common metric is the “risk-based capital ratio” (RBC), which equals an insurer’s “gross adjusted capital” divided by risk-adjusted assets.
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The minimum RBC ratio varies by country and company, but many large insurance companies in the United States, such as MetLife, often maintain a ratio between 300% and 400%:
This RBC ratio is an important cost and financial constraint.
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